In Israel the striped hyaena may encounter wolves, red foxes and caracals at carcasses. On a one-to-one basis it is dominant over the wolf, but a group of four wolves has been observed driving a single hyaena from a carcass (H. Mendelssohn unpublished data). A caracal may drive a subadult striped hyaena away from a carcass (Skinner and Ilani 1979). Competitors in central Asia include leopards, wolves, golden jackals, red and corsac foxes and vultures (Heptner and Sludskij 1980). The striped hyaena frequently scavenges from kills of tiger, leopard, cheetah, and wolf- a major component of the striped hyaena’s diet in central Asia are scavenged carcasses killed by wolves (Heptner and Sludskij 1980, Lukarevsky 1988). In India, the striped hyaena usually wins one-to-one encounters over carcasses with leopards, tiger cubs and domestic dogs but may be dominated by adult tigers (observations in Action Plan questionnaires, Pocock 1941, Rieger 1979 and references therein). In east Africa, the striped hyaena is dominated by the spotted hyaena and sometimes the leopard, yet in turn it may dominate the leopard and the domestic dog (Kruuk 1976). When attacked by domestic dogs or dug out by humans, the striped hyaena may use “shamming”, i.e. the animal pretends to be dead, even if repeatedly bitten (Pocock 1941, Heptner and Sludskij 1980).
In Africa, the striped hyaena is subordinate to lions and spotted hyaenas, although Kruuk (1976) described a mutual ‘attraction’ between the two hyaenids. Outcomes of encounters with cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus) are not as predictable, but adults of those species are likely to dominate striped hyaenas.