Brown Hyaena: Diet and Foraging

The brown hyaena is primarily a scavenger of a wide range of vertebrate remains; carrion is supplemented by wild fruit, insects, birds’ eggs and the occasional small animal, which is killed. In the southern Kalahari vertebrate prey killed by brown hyaenas make up only 4.2% of the food items eaten (Mills 1990). These were all… Continue reading Brown Hyaena: Diet and Foraging

Brown Hyaena: Distribution and Habitat

The brown hyaena inhabits the South West Arid Zone of Africa (Smithers 1983). The largest remaining populations are in the southern Kalahari and the coastal areas in Southwest Africa. The brown hyaena is found in desert areas with annual rainfall less than 100 mm, particularly along the coast, semi-desert, open scrub, and open woodland savannah… Continue reading Brown Hyaena: Distribution and Habitat

Brown Hyaena: Social Behavior

Brown hyaenas live in small social groups, called ‘clans.’ Clans range in size from a solitary female and her cubs to groups containing several females and their offspring of different ages. Some of the largest clans of brown hyaenas reported to date occur along the Namibian coast, where clans of 12-13 individuals are supported seasonally… Continue reading Brown Hyaena: Social Behavior

Brown Hyaena: Reproduction

The brown hyaena is a polyoestrous, non-seasonal breeder with anoestrous occurring during lactation. The gestation period is approximately 97 days and mean litter size is 2.3 (range: 1-5 cubs) (Mills 1982b). Both nomadic and immigrant males may mate and all adult females in a clan may reproduce, although the matriarch apparently produces more cubs than… Continue reading Brown Hyaena: Reproduction

Brown Hyaena: Association with other species

Over much of its range, the brown hyaena lives in association with other carnivorous animals and benefits from many of them by scavenging from their kills. Lion kills provide many scavenging opportunities for brown hyaenas, although they are dominated and even sometimes killed by lions. The brown hyaena is usually dominant over the leopard, cheetah,… Continue reading Brown Hyaena: Association with other species

Striped Hyaena: Diet and Foraging

The diet of the striped hyaena remains a matter of some debate.  However, these animals have been reported to consume a wide variety of vertebrates, invertebrates, vegetables, fruit, and human originated organic wastes (Flower 1932, Novikov 1962, Harrison 1968, Ilani 1975, Kruuk 1976, Macdonald 1978, Leakey 1999, Wagner 2006).  It is known to scavenge off… Continue reading Striped Hyaena: Diet and Foraging

Striped Hyaena: Distribution and Habitat

The striped hyaena has a very large range extending through the Middle East, Caucus region, Central Asia, and the Indian sub-continent, with its southern and western limits in Africa.  Absent from the Central Sahara, the distribution in Africa extends eastward from Senegal along the extent of the North African coast into Egypt and into the… Continue reading Striped Hyaena: Distribution and Habitat

Striped Hyaena: Reproduction

In the wild, litter size varies from one to four (median of three) throughout the year, after a gestation period of 90-91 days (Pocock 1941, Ronnefeld 1969, Heptner and Sludskij 1980). Average litter size in captivity is 2.4, with a range of one to five (Rieger 1979a). Parturition is preceded by intensive digging behaviour by… Continue reading Striped Hyaena: Reproduction

Striped Hyaena: Status and Conservation

Status Conservation Measures Questionnaire surveys in the Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan and an evaluation of published information suggest that the striped hyaena is already extinct in many localities and that populations are generally declining throughout its range. The major reasons for this decline are decreasing natural and domestic sources of carrion due to… Continue reading Striped Hyaena: Status and Conservation